Many Jews throughout history were Humanists. They were not in power, so their ideas did not get recorded in the official Jewish texts. Jews developed two responses to the ravages of anti-Semitism and invasions throughout Jewish history. One response is the religious response. This includes guilt for sins committed (real or imagined) and a surrendering to “greater powers.” The second response is Humanistic. It includes justified anger and skepticism and defiance of authority. It includes humor as a coping response–a mocking of ourselves and the absurdity of the world. It also includes self-reliance. Most Jewish heroes and most Jews today exhibit this second type of response in their daily lives. These Humanistic traits have likely been more important than faith and tradition in enabling the Jews to survive and preserve their identity.